11.1 Dry Heat Methods – Roasting and Broiling


  • To be able to identify cuts of meat appropriate for dry heat.
  • To be able to prepare and recognize three stages of doneness in dry heat meat cookery.
  • To determine the effect of the degree of doneness on flavor, juiciness, and tenderness of broiled and roasted tender cuts of meat.

Laboratory Problems

  • Identify cuts of meat to be prepared in this lab.
  • Roast pork rib roast.
  • Broil steaks to the four degrees of doneness.


  • Dry heat
    • Roast
    • Pan-Fry
    • Pan-Broil
    • Oven broil–Beef Steaks
    • Deep-Fat Fry
  • Retail cuts
    • Beef- Rib Steak, Club Steak, Porterhouse Steak, T-Bone Steak
    • Pork- Rib Chop, Loin Chop, Rib Roast
    • Lamb- Rib Chop, Loin Chop
  • Degree of doneness – check by color, texture
    • Medium rare – 63oC (145oF)
    • Medium – 71oC (160oF)
    • Well done – 77oC (170oF)
  • Longissimus dorsi– Loin muscle
    Psoas major– Tenderloin muscle
  • Myoglobin; Oxymyoglobin; Denatured Globin Hemichrome


Examine all cuts of meat before cooking, noting characteristics by which each can be identified:

Roast a pork rib roast

  1. Set oven at 325°F.
  2. Place meat, fat side up, in an open shallow roasting pan.  The ribs replace the rack usually required for roasting.  A boneless roast should be placed on a rack.
  3. Insert a meat thermometer so that the bulb is in the center of the largest muscle.  The bulb should not touch bone or rest in fat.  If a glass thermometer is used, first pierce the meat with a metal skewer.
  4. Roast to 63°C.  (145°F).
  5. Let stand approximately 10 minutes before carving.


Broil beef steaks to assigned degree of doneness:

°C °F Resting Time Interior Color
Medium-Rare 63 145 3 minutes Bright pink throughout interior
Medium 71 160 3 minutes Pink center, gray toward edges
Medium-Well 74 165 3 minutes Small amount of pink in center
Well Done 77 170 3 minutes Gray
  1. Cut through fat and epimysium (connective tissue surrounding muscle) at approximately 1-inch intervals to prevent curling.
  2. Remove broiler pan from oven; set the oven regulator for broiling.  Preheat electric, but not gas, broilers.
  3. Place meat on rack of broiler pan 2 to 5 inches from the heat.  Steaks to be cooked rare should be closer to, and steaks to be well-done farther from, the heat sources.
  4. Leave oven door open slightly while broiling
  5. Broil until top side is brown.  The meat should be approximately, or slightly more than, half-done by the time it is browned on top.
  6. Do not season meat in laboratory.  Outside the laboratory, broiled meats are seasoned after browning because salt tends to bring moisture to the cut surface and thus delays browning.
  7. Turn and brown other side.  Test for doneness by making a small cut along the bone, or in the center of a boneless cut, with a sharp knife.  Use temperature as an additional indicator.



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