12.8 Methods of Preparation – Baked Products


  • To review various techniques for preparation of baked grain products.
  • To use a variety of grain flours in baked products.

Laboratory Problems

  • Prepare chemically leavened baked products.
  • Prepare steam-leavened baked products.
  • Prepare yeast-leavened baked products.


Prepare Chemically Leavened Baked Products:

Whole Wheat Muffins

½ cup sifted all-purpose flour 2 tbsp. vegetable oil
2 tbsp. sugar ½ egg
1 tsp. baking powder ½ cup milk
¼ tsp. salt ½ cup whole wheat flour

Preheat oven to 400°F.  Grease bottom of 6 muffin cups.  Sift first 4 ingredients together.  Blend in whole wheat flour.  Combine liquid ingredients; add to dry, and stir just until ingredients are blended.  Fill muffin cups ⅔ full.  Bake at 400°F until golden brown, 15-20 minutes.


Bran Muffins

¾ cup unprocessed wheat bran ½  cup plus 2 tbsp. sifted flour
¼ cup boiling water ¼  tsp. salt
¼ cup brown sugar ½ tsp. baking soda
¼ cup butter ½ cup buttermilk
½ egg, beaten

Preheat oven to 400°F.  Grease bottom of 6 muffin cups.  Combine ¼ cup wheat bran with ¼ cup boiling water, stir and let water absorb into bran, about 5 minutes.  In separate medium bowl, blend sugar and butter with hand mixer.  Sift together the flour, soda and salt.  Combine moist bran with beaten eggs, remaining ½ cup of bran, buttermilk, sugar-butter mixture, and sifted dry ingredients.  Stir until well blended.  Spoon into prepared muffin tins.  Bake 12-15 minutes.


Brown Bread

⅔ cup whole wheat flour ⅓ cup mashed ripe banana
⅓ cup yellow cornmeal ⅓ cup buttermilk
¼ tsp. salt ¼ cup unsulfured molasses
⅓ tsp. baking soda ¼ cup raisins

Preheat oven to 350°F.  Mix together flour, cornmeal, salt, and soda.  Stir in remaining ingredients.  Turn into a greased and floured 6 x 3¼  inch loaf pan.  Bake in 350°F oven for 45 minutes or until pick inserted in center comes out clean.  Cool 10 minutes; turn out of pan and serve warm with butter.


Fruit Cobbler

½ cup sifted flour ⅓ cup sugar
1½ tsp. sugar 1½ tsp. cornstarch
¾ tsp. baking powder ¼ cup fruit juice from can (may need to supplement with simple syrup)
¼ tsp. salt 2 tbsp. shortening
1½ cups fruit ¼ cup milk
1 tsp. butter

Preheat oven to 400°F.  Sift together the flour, 1½ tsp. sugar, baking powder, and salt.  Cut in shortening until the mixture resembles coarse corn meal.  Add milk and stir to make soft dough.  Blend ⅓ cup sugar, cornstarch, and fruit juice; boil 1 minute and add fruit.  Pour fruit mixture into 1 quart baking dish.  Dot with butter.  Drop dough by spoonfuls on hot fruit mixture.  Bake at 400°F for 20-25 minutes.


Blueberry Scones with Lemon Glaze

1 cup flour 2 tbsp. + 1 ½ tsp. chilled butter
1 ½ tsp. baking powder ½ cup fresh blueberries
¼ tsp. salt ½ cup heavy cream
1 Tbsp. sugar
Lemon Glaze:
3 tbsp. lemon juice
1 ½ tsp. butter
1 cup powdered sugar 1 tsp. lemon zest

Sift together flour, baking powder, salt and sugar.  Use a pastry blender to cut in the butter until it looks like coarse crumbs.  Fold in the blueberries.  Make a well in the center and add heavy cream.  Fold together just until incorporated. Press the dough onto a lightly floured surface 1 ¼ inch thick, about 6×3 inches.  Cut into 4 triangle shapes.  Bake on an ungreased baking sheet for 15-20 minutes at 400°F.  Let cool.

Dissolve powdered sugar in lemon juice. Heat in microwave or double boiler, if necessary. Whisk in butter and zest until smooth.  Drizzle over scones.


Southern Spoon Bread

1 cup cornmeal 1 cup milk
2 cups milk 3 egg yolks
1 tsp. salt 3 egg whites
1 tsp. baking powder ¼ tsp. cream of tartar
2 tbsp. melted shortening or vegetable oil Butter

Preheat oven to 325°F.  Cook cornmeal and 2 cups milk until consistency of mush.  Remove from heat; add salt, baking powder, shortening, and 1 cup milk.  Add egg yolks.  Beat egg whites with cream of tartar to the upper limit of the soft peak stage.  Fold about one-fourth of the foam into the corn meal mixture.  Spread corn meal mixture over the remaining foam and fold until well blended.  Bake in greased 2-quart baking dish at 325°F for 1 hour.  Spoon into warm dishes; top with butter.


Irish Soda Bread

¾ cup whole wheat flour ½ tsp. salt
½ cup all-purpose flour ¼ tsp. baking soda
¾ tsp. sugar ½ cup + 2 tbsp. buttermilk or sour milk

Preheat oven to 375°F.  Mix dry ingredients together.  Add enough milk to form a soft dough.  Knead on lightly floured board 2 minutes.  Form into round cake.  Cut a cross on the top of loaf with very sharp floured knife.  Bake at 375°F for 25-35 minutes on well-greased baking sheet.  Cool.  Cut in thin slices.


Herb Corn Sticks

5/6 cup (½ c. + ⅓ c.) sifted all-purpose flour ⅜ cup cornmeal
¼ tsp. crumbled dried marjoram 1½ tsp. baking powder
¼ tsp. thyme ¼ tsp. salt
½ egg 1 tbsp. sugar
¾ cup milk 2 tbsp. butter

Preheat oven to 425°F.  Sift flour again with baking powder, salt, and sugar.  Stir in cornmeal, marjoram, and thyme.  In another bowl, beat egg; stir in milk and melted butter, then add all at once to the dry ingredients and stir just until mixture is moistened.  Spoon into well-greased corn stick pans, filling about ¾ full.  Bake in hot oven (425°F) for 20 minutes, or until golden brown.


Prepare Steam-Leavened Products:

Danish Puff

3 tbsp. butter 3 tbsp. butter
¼ cup sifted powdered sugar ⅓ cup sifted flour
⅓ cup water 2 tsp. water
⅓ cup sifted flour ¼ tsp. almond flavoring
¼ tsp. almond flavoring 1 tsp. milk
1 egg

Preheat oven to 350°F.  Cut 3 tbsp. butter into ⅓ cup flour.  Sprinkle with 2 tsp. water and mix with fork until dough forms a ball.  Pat onto an ungreased baking sheet.

Bring 3 tbsp. butter and ⅓ cup water to a boil.  Remove from heat; immediately add ⅓ cup flour; stir until smooth.  Add ¼ tsp. almond flavoring and egg, and beat well.  Spread evenly over the pastry layer.  Bake for about 45-60 minutes, until top layer is crisp and brown.  Puff will shrink when removed from oven.

Mix powdered sugar, ¼ tsp. almond flavoring and milk.  Spread on puff while still warm.


Sesame Seed Wafers

½ cup sifted cake flour 1½ tsp. sugar
½ cup whole wheat flour 2 tbsp. shortening
¼ tsp. salt 2-3 tbsp. ice water
2-3 tsp Sesame Seeds

Preheat oven to 425°F.  Mix dry ingredients together.  Cut in shortening with pastry blender.  Stir in ice water until the dough is the same consistency as pie dough.  Roll out 1/8″ thick on a lightly floured board.  Sprinkle with sesame seeds and roll lightly with rolling pin.  Cut into 1-inch squares.  Bake on lightly greased baking sheet for approximately 8 minutes or until brown.


Dessert Crepes

½ cup sifted flour ⅔ cup milk
½ tsp. salt 1 tbsp. butter, melted
1 tbsp. sugar ½ tsp. grated orange zest
2 eggs, well beaten ½ cup warm pie filling

Sift flour, salt and sugar.  Combine eggs, milk, butter, and orange zest.  Add to flour mixture, blending until smooth.  Make one crepe at a time.  Pour a spoonful of batter on hot, lightly greased griddle for each 4-inch pancake.  Tilt griddle to make pancake as thin as possible.  Bake until browned, turning to brown both sides.  Remove to warm platter.  Place a 2-3 tablespoons of warm pie filling in center of each and roll up.


Cheese Straws

1 cup sifted flour ⅓ cup butter
½ tsp. salt 1 cup grated sharp Cheddar cheese
¼ tsp. dry mustard 1½ tbsp. ice water
⅛ tsp. cayenne 1 tsp. celery seed

Preheat oven to 350°F.  Sift dry ingredients together.  Cut in butter and half the cheese with pastry blender.  Add water.  Blend lightly.  Roll ⅛ inch thick.  Sprinkle with remaining cheese.  Fold dough in half.  Roll ⅛ inch thick again.  Cut into strips 3 inch by ½ inch.  Sprinkle with celery seed.  Bake 12 minutes at 350°F or until light brown.

Chicken Almond Puffs

½ cup flour 2 eggs
⅛ tsp. salt ¼ cup finely diced chicken
¼ cup butter 1 tbsp. finely chopped toasted almonds
½ cup chicken broth dash paprika

Preheat oven to 450°F.  Mix flour and salt.  Combine butter and chicken broth in pan; bring to boil.  Remove from heat; immediately add all the flour and stir vigorously until mixture forms a ball and leaves sides of pan.  Add eggs, one at a time, beating thoroughly after each.  Continue beating until a thick dough is formed.  Stir in chicken, almonds, and paprika.  Drop by heaping teaspoonfuls onto greased baking sheet.  Bake at 450°F for 10 minutes; reduce heat to 350°F and bake 5-10 minutes or until browned.  Serve hot.


Prepare Yeast-Leavened Breads:

Swedish Limpia

2¾ -3¼  cups unsifted white flour 1 tsp. grated orange peel
1 cup unsifted rye flour 1 pkg. active dry yeast
2 tbsp. firmly packed dark brown sugar 1 tbsp. butter, softened
1 tsp. salt 1⅓ cups very warm tap water (50-55°C)
1 tsp. caraway seeds

Combine flours; in a large bowl thoroughly mix 1¼ cups flour mixture, sugar, salt, caraway seeds, orange peel, and undissolved activated dry yeast.  Add softened butter.   Gradually add very warm tap water to dry ingredients and beat 2 minutes at medium speed of electric mixer, scraping bowl occasionally.  Add ½ cup flour.  Beat at high speed 2 minutes, scraping bowl occasionally.  Stir in enough additional flour to make a soft dough.

Turn out onto lightly floured board; knead until smooth and elastic (about 8 to 10 minutes).  Place in a greased bowl, turning to grease top.  Cover; let rise in a warm place, free from draft, until doubled in bulk, about 45 minutes.  Punch dough down; turn out onto lightly floured board.  Shape into a round ball.

Place on greased baking sheet.  With sharp knife make 3 slits across surface of the ball.  Cover; let rise in warm place, free from draft, until doubled in bulk.  Bake at 400°F about 30 minutes, or until done.  Remove from baking sheet and cool on wire rack.



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