12.1 Muffin Method


  • To apply standard techniques for gluten formation by preparing a product in which gluten forms very readily.
  • To differentiate among various forms of wheat flour and the gluten balls made from these flours.

Laboratory Problems

  • Prepare muffins.


  • Gluten=Gliadin and Glutenin + liquid + manipulation
  • Muffin Method- mix dry ingredients, make a well, add liquid ingredients with minimal mixing.
  • Creaming
  • Gliadin and Glutenin are wheat proteins



Yield: 6 medium muffins.[1]

1 cup sifted all-purpose flour ½ cup milk
1 tbsp. sugar ½ egg (2 tbsp.)
1½ tsp. baking powder 2 tbsp. + 1½ tsp. oil
¼ tsp. salt

Heat oven to 425°F; grease the bottoms of muffins cups in pan.  Sift flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt together 3 or 4 times to mix thoroughly.  Add egg to milk and blend thoroughly with whisk or rotary beater.  Add oil and mix.

Make a well in the dry ingredients in a large (8½” – 2½ qt.) bowl; add the liquid ingredients all at once to the dry.  With a rubber spatula or wooden spoon, immediately start to stir as quickly as possible without splashing the mixture out of the bowl.  Try to mix in 10 seconds; do not mix longer than 20 seconds.  Stop stirring the instant the dry ingredients are just dampened.  The batter should be lumpy but should not show particles of dry flour.  To place muffins in pan, use a spoon and cut against side of the bowl, with one clean stroke.  Fill each muffin cup 2/3 full.  Place spoon directly in muffin pan and push batter from it with another spoon or rubber spatula.  Bake at 425oF until golden brown, approximately 12-15 minutes.  Let stand 1-2 minutes before removing from pan.


Characteristics of a Standard Product for Muffins:

Appearance Texture Flavor

Symmetrical shape.

Golden brown top with a pebbled surface resembling cauliflower.

Creamy white interior.  No tunnels.

Moderate grain as evidenced by even, medium-sized holes and fairly thin cell walls.

Moist and tender

Mild, pleasing flavor.



Characteristics Under stirred Optimal Mixing Over stirred


Examine Display Tray of Various Kinds of Flour and Gluten Balls:

Examine display tray of various kinds of wheat flour and gluten balls:  bread, all-purpose, cake, pastry, and rye.

Characteristics of Various Kinds of Flour
Type of Flour Protein Content of Flour Volume of Gluten Ball Explanation
Whole Grain Flours
Whole Wheat
Refined Wheat Flours

  1. 2 under-stirred (5 secs. mixing); 2 standard (10 secs. mixing); 2 over-stirred (1+ min. mixing)


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Basic Scientific Food Preparation Lab Manual Copyright © 2023 by Iowa State University Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.